Table of Contents

Proprietary Escape Codes

iTerm2 supports several non-standard escape codes. These may not work properly in tmux or screen, and may have unknown effects on other terminal emulators. Proceed with caution.

A quick comment on notation: in this document, ^[ means "Escape" (hex code 0x1b) and ^G means "bel" (hex code 0x07).

The OSC command 50 used to be used but it conflicts with xterm, so it is now 1337.

Anchor (OSC 8)

VTE and iTerm2 support OSC 8 for defining hyperlinks, much like HTML's anchor tag.

^[]8;params;url^G

params consists of zero or more colon-delimited key-value pairs. A key-value pair is formatted as key=value. The only currently defined key is id. Two adjacent hyperlinks with the same URL but different ids will highlight separately when Command is pressed during hover.

If the url is absent then that ends the hyperlink. Typical usage would look like:

^[]8;;https://example.com/^GLink to example website^[]8;;^G

To open a link, hold Command and click the link.

Set cursor shape

^[]1337;CursorShape=N^G

where N=0, 1, or 2.

  • 0: Block
  • 1: Vertical bar
  • 2: Underline

Add this to your .vimrc to change cursor shape in insert mode:

let &t_SI = "\<Esc>]1337;CursorShape=1\x7"
let &t_EI = "\<Esc>]1337;CursorShape=0\x7"

This is derived from Konsole.

Set Mark

The "Set Mark" (cmd-shift-M) command allows you to record a location and then jump back to it later (with cmd-shift-J). The following escape code has the same effect as that command:

^[]1337;SetMark^G

Steal Focus

To bring iTerm2 to the foreground:

^[]1337;StealFocus^G

Clear Scrollback History

To erase the scrollback history:

^[]1337;ClearScrollback^G

Set curent directory

To inform iTerm2 of the current directory to help semantic history:

^[]1337;CurrentDir=/the/current/directory^G

Post a Growl notification

To post a Growl notification:

^[]9;Message content goes here^G

This will have no effect if Growl is not running.

Change profile

To change the session's profile on the fly:

^[]1337;SetProfile=NewProfileName^G

Copy to clipboard

To place text in the pasteboard:

^[]1337;CopyToClipboard=name^G

Where name is one of "rule", "find", "font", or empty to mean the general pasteboard (which is what you normally want). After this is sent, all text received is placed in the pasteboard until this code comes in:

^[]1337;EndCopy^G

Set window title and tab chrome background color

To set the window title and tab color use this escape sequence:

^[]6;1;bg;red;brightness;N^G
^[]6;1;bg;green;brightness;N^G
^[]6;1;bg;blue;brightness;N^G

Replace N with a decimal value in 0 to 255.

Example in bash that turns the background purple:

echo -e "\033]6;1;bg;red;brightness;255\a"
echo -e "\033]6;1;bg;green;brightness;0\a"
echo -e "\033]6;1;bg;blue;brightness;255\a"

To reset the window title and tab color, use this code:

^[]6;1;bg;*;default^G

For example:

echo -e "\033]6;1;bg;*;default\a"

Change the color palette

To change the current session's colors use this code:

^[]1337;SetColors=key=value^G

key gives the color to change. The accepted values are: fg bg bold link selbg selfg curbg curfg underline tab" black red green yellow blue magenta cyan white br_black br_red br_green br_yellow br_blue br_magenta br_cyan br_white

value gives the new color. The following formats are accepted:

  • RGB (three hex digits, like fff)
  • RRGGBB (six hex digits, like f0f0f0)
  • cs:RGB (like RGB but cs gives a color space)
  • cs:RRGGBB (like RRGGBB but cs gives a color space)

If a color space is given, it should be one of:

  • srgb (the standard sRGB color space)
  • rgb (the device-specific color space)
  • p3 (the standard P3 color space, whose gamut is supported on some newer hardware)

The following alternate schemes are also supported: * If key is preset then value should be the name of a color preset. * If key is tab then a value of default removes the tab color and restores it to the system default.

A second escape sequence is also supported, but its use is not recommended:

^[]Pnrrggbb^[\

Replace "n" with:

  • 0-f (hex) = ansi color
  • g = foreground
  • h = background
  • i = bold color
  • j = selection color
  • k = selected text color
  • l = cursor
  • m = cursor text

rr, gg, bb are 2-digit hex value (for example, "ff"). Example in bash that changes the foreground color blue:

echo -e "\033]Pg4040ff\033\\"

Annotations

To add an annotation use on of these sequences:

^[]1337;AddAnnotation=message^G
^[]1337;AddAnnotation=length|message^G
^[]1337;AddAnnotation=message|length|x-coord|y-coord^G
^[]1337;AddHiddenAnnotation=message^G
^[]1337;AddHiddenAnnotation=length|message^G
^[]1337;AddHiddenAnnotation=message|length|x-coord|y-coord^G
  • message: The message to attach to the annotation.
  • length: The number of cells to annotate. Defaults to the rest of the line beginning at the start of the annotation.
  • x-coord and y-coord: The starting coordinate for the annotation. Defaults to the cursor's coordinate.

AddHiddenAnnotation does not reveal the annotation window at the time the escape sequence is received, while AddAnnotation opens it immediately.

Cursor Guide

^[]1337;HighlightCursorLine=boolean^G

The boolean should be yes or no. This shows or hides the cursor guide.

Attention

^[]1337;RequestAttention=value^G

The value should be yes to request attention by bouncing the dock icon and no to cancel a previous request. If it is fireworks then fireworks explode at the cursor's location.

Background Image

^[]1337;SetBackgroundImageFile=base64^G

The value of base64 is a base64-encoded filename to display as a background image. If it is an empty string then the background image iwll be removed. User confirmation is required as a security measure.

Report Cell Size

^[]1337;ReportCellSize^G

The terminal responds with:

^[]1337;ReportCellSize=height;width^G

Where height and width are floating point values giving the size in points of a single character cell. For example:

^[]1337;ReportCellSize=17.50;8.00^[\

Copy to Pasteboard

You can place a string in the system's pasteboard with this sequence:

^[]1337;Copy=;base64^G

Where base64 is the base64-encoded string to copy to the pasteboard.

Report Variable

Each iTerm2 session has internal variables (as described in Badges). This escape sequence reports a variable's value:

^[]1337;ReportVariable=base64^G

Where base64 is a base64-encoded variable name, like session.name. It responds with;

^[]1337;ReportVariable=base64^G

Where base64 is a base64-encoded value.

Badge

The badge has custom escape sequences described here.

Downloads

For information on file downloads and inline images, see here.

Uploads

To request the user select one or more files to upload, send:

^[]1337;RequestUpload=format=tgz

In the future the format may be configurable, but for now it must always be tgz, which is a tar and gzipped file.

When iTerm2 receives this it will respond with a status of ok or abort followed by a newline. If the status is ok then it will be followed by a base-64 encoded tar.gz file.

If the user selects multiple files they will be placed in a directory within the tar file.

Set Touch Bar Key Labels

You can configure touch bar key labels for function keys and for the "status" button. The code used is:

^[]1337;SetKeyLabel=key=value^G

Where key is one of F1, F2, ..., F20, to adjust a function key label; or it can be status to adjust the touch bar status button. You can also save and restore sets of key labels using a stack. To push the current key labels on the stack use:

^[]1337;PushKeyLabels^G

To pop them:

^[]1337;PopKeyLabels^G

You can optionally label the entry in the stack when you push so that pop will pop multiple sets of key labels if needed. This is useful if a program crashes or an ssh session exits unexpectedly. The corresponding codes with labels are:

^[]1337;PushKeyLabels=label^G
^[]1337;PopKeyLabels=label^G

Where label is an ASCII string that works best if it is unique in the stack.

Unicode Version

iTerm2 by default uses Unicode 8's width tables. The user can opt to use Unicode 9's tables with a preference (which render emoji more nicely, but requires applications that expect Unicode 9 width tables). Since not all apps will be updated at the same time, you can tell iTerm2 to use a particular set of width tables with:

^[]1337;UnicodeVersion=n^G

Where n is 8 or 9

You can push the current value on a stack and pop it off to return to the previous value by setting n to push or pop. Optionally, you may affix a label after push by setting n to something like push mylabel. This attaches a label to that stack entry. When you pop the same label, entries will be popped until that one is found. Set n to pop mylabel to effect this. This is useful if a program crashes or an ssh session ends unexpectedly.

Shell Integration/FinalTerm

iTerm2's Shell Integration feature is made possible by proprietary escape sequences pioneered by the FinalTerm emulator. FinalTerm is defunct, but the escape sequences are documented here.

Concepts

The goal of the FinalTerm escape sequences is to mark up a shell's output with semantic information about where the prompt begins, where the user-entered command begins, and where the command's output begins and ends.

[PROMPT]prompt% [COMMAND_START] ls -l
[COMMAND_EXECUTED]
-rw-r--r-- 1 user group 127 May 1 2016 filename
[COMMAND_FINISHED]

Escape Sequences

FinalTerm originally defined various escape sequences in its original spec that are not supported by iTerm2 and are not described in this document. The best remaining references to these codes are in iTerm2's source code.

FTCS_PROMPT

^[]133;A^G

Sent just before start of shell prompt.

FTCS_COMMAND_START

^[]133;B^G

Sent just after end of shell prompt, before the user-entered command.

FTCS_COMMAND_EXECUTED

^[]133;C^G

Sent just before start of command output. All text between FTCS_COMMAND_START and FTCS_COMMAND_EXECUTED at the time FTCS_COMMAND_EXECUTED is received excluding terminal whitespace is considered the command the user entered. It is expected that user-entered commands will be edited interactively, so the screen contents are captured without regard to how they came to contain their state. If the cursor's location is before (above, or if on the same line, left of) its location when FTCS_COMMAND_START was received, then the command will be treated as the empty string.

FTCS_COMMAND_FINISHED

^[]133;D;Ps^G

^[]133;D^G (for cancellation only)

The interpretation of this command depends on which FTCS was most recently received prior to FTCS_COMMAND_FINISHED.

This command may be sent after FTCS_COMMAND_START to indicate that a command was aborted. All state associated with the preceding prompt and the command until its receipt will be deleted. Either form is accepted for an abort. If the Ps argument is provided to an abort it will be ignored.

If this command is sent after FTCS_COMMAND_EXECUTED, then it indicates the end of command prompt. Ps is the command's exit status, a number in the range 0-255 represented as one or more ASCII decimal digits. A status of 0 is considered "success" and nonzero indicates "failure." The terminal may choose to indicate this visually.

If neither FTCS_COMMAND_START nor FTCS_COMMAND_EXECUTED was sent prior to FTCS_COMMAND_FINISHED it should be ignored.

iTerm2 Extensions

iTerm2 extends FinalTerm's suite of escape sequences.

SetUserVar

^[]1337;SetUserVar=Ps1=Ps2^G

Sets the value of a user-defined variable. iTerm2 keeps a dictionary of key-value pairs which may be used within iTerm2 as string substitutions, such as in the Badge.

Ps1 is the key.

Ps2 is the base64-encoded value.

ShellIntegrationVersion

^[]1337;ShellIntegrationVersion=Pn;Ps^G

^[]1337;ShellIntegrationVersion=Pn^G (deprecated)

Reports the current version of the shell integration script.

Pn is the version.

Ps is the name of the shell (e.g., bash).

iTerm2 has a baked-in notion of the "current" version and if it sees a lower number the user will be prompted to upgrade. The version number is specific to the shell.

RemoteHost

^[]1337;RemoteHost=Ps1@Ps2^G

Reports the user name and hostname.

Ps1 is username. Ps2 is fully-qualified hostname.

The following synonym is available as a combination of RemoteHost and CurrentDir:

^[]7;Ps^G

where Ps is a file URL with a hostname and a path, like file://example.com/usr/bin.

CurrentDir

^[]1337;CurrentDir=Ps1^G

Reports the current directory.

Ps1 is the current directory.

The following synonym is available as a combination of RemoteHost and CurrentDir:

^[]7;Ps^G

where Ps is a file URL with a hostname and a path, like file://example.com/usr/bin.